巨额差价进了谁的腰包?三问原料药暴涨风波

某原料药厂在生产中。新华社资料图

浙江在线8月10日讯(浙江在线记者 詹丽华)此前,有业内人士向记者报料,原料药马来酸氯苯那敏(扑尔敏)市场价涨到23300元/公斤,暴涨58倍。浙江在线随后进行了报道,消息一经刊发,引起舆论广泛关注,各方纷纷作出回应。

卷入断供风波的浙江药企,向记者讲述了因为原料药涨价导致部分药品停产的来龙去脉。

报道涉及的原料药厂很快向制药企业发出了新的供货通知函,表示其扑尔敏出厂价才800元/公斤。

而制药企业,手上拿着原料药厂新的供货通知函,却仍在担心不能按合理价格拿到货。

记者对此进行了追踪。

浙江企业上了断供名单是怎么回事

当事企业:我们只是去救救急

大概两周前,浙江诚意药业出现在辽宁省药品和医用耗材集中采购网的一则预警通知中,成为由于采购不到原料导致部分药品停产的13家药企之一。

这是怎么回事?

“说起来,我们其实是去帮忙的。”浙江诚意药业相关负责人告诉记者,他们原本并不在辽宁采购盐酸利多卡因注射液的招投标名单上,“最初中标的三家药企因为原料药涨价的原因最终放弃供货,所以当地政府集中采购部门找到我们,希望能帮忙救救急,业务员就答应了。”

此时,盐酸利多卡因注射液其中一种不可或缺的重要辅料价格已经暴涨90多倍,原本中标的药企选择弃标,也是这个原因。“负责销售的业务员不了解原料药涨价的情况,供货需求传回厂里,我们也很着急,最后是紧急全国调货,才凑了一批先送过去。”

最终,因为原料价格暴涨,诚意药业暂停该注射液的生产,不得不断供。“前几天,对方已经通知我们,说没有把诚意列入集中采购黑名单。”这位负责人坦言,给辽宁供的这批注射液药企是亏本的,“主要是考虑到维护关系,但持续亏,我们也承受不了。”

事实上,药企断供的原因当地政府部门是清楚的。从今年6月至今,不足两个月,辽宁省药品和医用耗材集中采购网上陆续公示了三四十种药品移出限价采购常用低价药品清单,调至集中采购药品目录“暂不列入招标采购药品清单”。

“不移出限价,没人生产。”一位药企负责人直言。

原料药厂发声供货价格没超过800元

业内人:暴利都进了炒家口袋

8月7日一大早,记者接到一位制药行业人士的报料,“扑尔敏这个品种,垄断者畏于压力不敢搞了。”他转给记者一份刚刚收到的“供货通知函”,通知函的落款是河南九势制药。从字面上看,通知函主要表达了两层意思:一是扑尔敏供货价格为每公斤800元左右;二是公司目前处于停产状态,预计9月底前恢复正常生产。

随后,河南九势官网发布了这份“供货通知函”。从800元/公斤飙高到23300元/公斤,这中间发生了什么?

“原料药厂的供货价或许没有超过800元,但事实上我们从原料药厂根本拿不到货,进货只能通过经销商,而实际拿货价已经飙升到两万多。”浙江某药企的负责人胡坤(化名)表示,原料药厂是否无辜他不好说,但大头肯定是进了所谓“授权经销商”的口袋。

胡坤告诉记者,他也接到了这份供货通知,但在他看来,这只能说明两个问题,“一是现在我们可以从原料药厂进货了,‘经销商’这波炒作暂时没了;二是供应量目前还得酌情。”因为通知中有一句“根据实际需求酌量采购”。“业内的都很清楚,‘酌量’就是,我需求100公斤,但对方可能只会给一半。”

原料药厂垄断为何只罚了几十万

律师:违法成本太低

“反垄断的执法主要是通过经济制裁,针对的也是企业的经济行为。”一位相关政府部门负责人私下说,虽然药企涉及价格垄断的案子一直在查,“但情况还是比较多,而且它与一般的经济案件不一样,调查时间长、取证非常困难。”

事实上,有药企向记者反映,一年前曾向上级管理部门举报相关线索,之后有工作人员上门取证,但至今没结果。

而被查实的垄断案例,也被吐槽“处罚太轻”。去年7月底,浙江省物价局曾转发国家发展改革委对浙江新赛科药业有限公司、天津汉德威药业有限公司滥用市场支配地位,以不公平高价销售异烟肼原料药以及无正当理由拒绝交易一案依法作出处理的决定。最终上述两家公司的行为被认定为“价格垄断”,被罚款44.39万元。

这样的处罚是否偏轻?

“关于药物原材料垄断行为,比较类似滥用市场支配地位的行为,根据《中华人民共和国反垄断法》的规定,其行政处罚主要有三种,第一:责令停止违法行为;第二:没收违法所得;第三:上一年度销售额1%到10%的罚款。”浙江东鹰律师事务所高级合伙人陈钟律师专门研究过此类问题,“但在行政处罚中,违法所得的认定尚存在不明确之处,也就是说到底是以销售额计算还是以盈利额计算都尚有争议。”

以新赛科为例。国家发展和改革委员会对其作出的行政处罚决定书中认定新赛科有滥用国内医药级异烟肼原料药市场支配地位的行为,除了责令停止该违法行为外,最终对新赛科“处以2016年度相关市场销售额人民币1447.58万元百分之二的罚款,计人民币28.9516万元。”

“确实违法成本太低。在该行政处罚中,并未决定没收其违法所得,也未认定违法所得的金额,如果违法所得的金额被认定,那么处罚金额应当比较大。”陈钟告诉钱江晚报记者,药物原材料垄断行为其实也涉及到民事责任承担问题,也就是说消费者可以主张民事赔偿。

《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第五十条规定:“经营者实施垄断行为,给他人造成损失的,依法承担民事责任。”该条款规定了垄断行为给他人造成损失的民事赔偿责任问题。

《最高人民法院关于审理因垄断行为引发的民事纠纷案件应用法律若干问题的规定》中对于该民事赔偿责任作出了进一步的规定。“按司法解释,直接和间接受到垄断行为侵害的经营者和消费者都具有原告资格。”陈钟说。

但实际上,消费者并不知道应该去告谁。

杭州物价:仅靠一地一市物价部门难以完成有效监管

从2015年6月1日起,全国除麻醉和第一类精神药品外药品取消政府定价。销售给患者的医保药品逐步通过医保支付价格来制约,并根据相关因素进行动态调整。

“目前,我们物价部门主要是对药品销售价格行为进行监管。”杭州市物价局相关负责人解释说,“原料药厂到制药企业的原材料价格则基本以市场供求关系等因素竞争形成。”

他的说法,事实上回答了物价部门能否有效监管药品及原材料价格的问题。部分纳入医保支付的药品因为有“限价采购,医保支付”的保护措施,即使原料药涨价了,也不会立刻传导到成品药,而未纳入医保支付的药品以及原料药的价格则容易波动。也就是说,有的人打着“市场竞争”的包装,通过囤积、垄断来炒作原料药“离谱的涨价”,可以获得远高于合理利润的收益。

“仅靠一地一市物价部门难以完成有效监管。”这位负责人表示,药品原材料的价格需要国家、省市层面多部门协调有效监管,才能反映正常市场水平。

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