我火箭军“地下长城”曝光!到底建了多长时间,答案令人震惊!

  近日,央视罕见地曝光了火箭军某地下“秘密基地”。这种地下基地不仅有完备的生活保障设施,还具备四通八达的交通网络帮助火箭军随时反击,可以大幅提升火箭军战时生存能力,曾被誉为我国的“地下核长城”。那么,这些雄伟的地下核长城,是从什么时候开始建设的呢?

  1964年,总参谋部程下达任务,确定由工程兵科研设计院5所负责导弹阵地工程的设计。该所接受任务后,立即组织人员进行导弹作战阵地工程方案论证和有关技术准备。经过1年的初步设计,1965年5月2日,张副总长、炮兵吴克华司令员和向守志副司令员、工程兵陈士榘司令员等亲临现场并批准开工。我军第一个导弹作战阵地工程正式破土动工,标志着我国战略导弹阵地工程建设翻开了历史的第一页。从这一时间开始计算,我军“地下核长城”建造时间已经达到54年,而且至今仍没有停止建造。

  1979年以后,随着武器研制工作的发展,导弹阵地工程建设由全面建设转变为重点建设。为增强工程防护能力,提髙生存能力。经过不断研究和探索,新重点建设的导弹阵地,在工程防护抗力、防电子脉冲、防震、防冲击波、防侦察等方面,都有新的进展。到1985年,我军已经建成一批不同型号、不同发射方式、不同工程样式的发射阵地,以及能打、能防、能储存、能指挥、能生活的指挥所、弹库等各种配套工程。这些阵地已完全具备战备值班条件。

  进入21世纪后,阵地工程建设也进入了一个新的高潮时期。这一时期与已往相比,时间紧任务重,要求高。阵地工程无论在施工技术、施工装备和施工组织管理上都有了很大的改变。如何适应新型施工机械装备,采取新的施工技术方法和组织管理模式,确保高效、优质、安全地完成阵地工程建设的任务,是关键问题。

  例如这一时期我军导弹阵地工程开始应用大量的先进技术,包括先进的工程机械化设备如凿岩台车、混凝土喷射机械手,新技术包括掘进工程光面爆破、多层控制结构组合爆破等。同时针对国外精确制导弹药、钻地弹、钻地核弹等新武器的出现,我军还加大了防护技术和理论的研究,包括研究岩石侵彻爆炸机理,开展对复杂岩土介质中侵彻、爆炸、成坑、地冲击、地下结构反应及其破坏的模拟研究,特别是开展多弹爆炸聚集和重复地冲击效应的模拟研究。

  我军新一代的导弹阵地工程,具有4个新特点。首先是具有军民融合功能。导弹阵地工程建设周期长,使用年限久。在选址、勘察、施工、验收和交付使用整个过程中将充分运用军事系统工程、军事运筹学和工程控制论理论,实现优化设计和合理施工。从国防经济效益考虑,出现军民共用工程如地面和地下交通工程,合建型水电工程等。

  第二是新型阵地建设。随着导弹制导技术、推进剂技术和火力诸元技术的进步,阵地样式将进一步改进将出现小型地下发射井群样式。由此将出现“井-巷”一体化施工的稳定评估与控制问题。第三是深埋阵地工程。随着信息化火力的命中精度不断提高,以电磁武器为代表的新概念武器的迅猛发展对阵地工程的毁伤效应也不断增强,因此阵地工程将向深埋发展。

  第四是应用新的抗核爆支援防护体系。一是研制高性能复合材料,如高强纤维增强混凝土;二是改进结构形式,如“平面该曲面”、“平面改斜面”;第三是改善周围岩石的应力环境,如在支护和围岩之间设置软回填、采用一定工程措施实现核爆“应力波绕射”、采用新奥法施工对围岩进行主动加固等。

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